Aztec Ceremonial Landscapes

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Pearsall ed. Oxford, Elsevier. Proceedings of the Ashmore, W. Prehistoric Society — Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Blake, E. Space, spatiality, and archaeol- Perspectives. Oxford: Blackwell.

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Preucel ed. Experiencing the past? The Oxford: Blackwell. Owoc eds. Soils, ology in British prehistory. London: UCL Press.

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Ceremonial Landscapes. Niwot: University ———. Siting, Neolithic and Bronze Age Europe. London: Sighting, and citing the dead, in H. Silverman Routledge. Small eds. Ruined buildings ruined stones: Death, pp. Arlington: American Anthropological the Neolithic of southwest England. World Association. Archaeology 13— Charles, D. Bradley, R. The Past Boivin and World Archaeology 30 1 Whole issue. Brady, J. Cole, S.

Berkeley Brady, J. Colwell-Chanthaphonh, C. Memory pieces and footprints: Contemporary Perspectives, pp. Multivocality and the meanings of ancient Oxford: Blackwell. American Anthropologist — Broda, J. Templo Mayor as ritual space, in J. Broda, D. Carrasco, and E. Moctezuma Cowgill, G. Intentionality and meaning in eds. Cambridge Center and Periphery in the Aztec World, pp.

Archaeological Journal — Sacred landscapes: of California Press. Constructed and conceptualized, in W. The sacred landscape of Aztec Ashmore and A. Knapp eds. Ceremonial Landscapes, pp. Niwot: Eliade, M. The Sacred and the Profane. University Press of Colorado. New York: Harcourt Brace. Brown, L. Dangerous places and wild Fash, B. Andrews and W. Fash Duende Mountain.

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Tarlow eds. New York: Kluwer Marcus, J. Mesoamerican City. Vogt and R. Heyden, D. From Teotihuacan to M. Leventhal eds. Willey, of red and blue waters, in D. Carrasco, L. Albuquerque: University of Jones, and S. Sessions eds. Aztecs, pp. Boulder: University Press Mathews, J. Models of of Colorado. Landscape, myth and time. Ancient Journal of Material Culture — Mesoamerica 49— Houston, S.

McGuire, R. Experience among the Classic Maya. Austin: Meskell and R. Oxford Ingold, T. The temporality of the landscape. World Archaeology — The flayed skins of sacrificial victims that had been worn by priests for the last twenty days were taken off and placed in these dark, magical caverns. The winter veintena of Atemoztli 9 December — 28 December was also dedicated to the Tlaloque.

This period preceded an important rainy season, so statues were made out of amaranth dough. Their teeth were pumpkin seeds and their eyes, beans. Once these statues were offered copal, fine scents, and other food items, while they were also prayed to and adorned with finery.

Afterwards, their doughy chests were opened, their "hearts" taken out, before their bodies were cut up and eaten. On the final day of the "veintena," people celebrated and held banquets. Tlaloc was also worshipped during the Huey Tozotli festival, which was celebrated annually. While Tlaloc is not normally associated with Huey Tozotli, evidence from the Codex Borbonicus indicates that Tlaloc was worshipped during this festival. Tlaloc was linked to the regenerative capacity of weather, and, as such, he was worshipped at Mount Tlaloc because much of the rain in Central Mexico is formed over range of which Mount Tlaloc is a part.

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Archaeological evidence indicates Tlaloc was worshiped in Mesoamerica before the Aztecs even settled there in the 13th century AD. He was a prominent god in Teotihuacan at least years before the Aztecs. Chalchiuhtlicue, or "she of the jade skirt" in Nahutatl, was the deity connected with the worship of ground water. Therefore, her shrines were by springs, streams, irrigation ditches, or aqueducts, the most important of these shrines being at Pantitlan, in the center of Lake Texcoco.

Sometimes described as Tlaloc's sister, Chalchiuhtlicue was impersonated by ritual performers wearing the green skirt that was associated with Chalchiuhtlicue. Like that of Tlaloc, her cult was linked to the earth, fertility and nature's regeneration. Tlaloc was first married to the goddess of flowers, Xochiquetzal , which literally translates to "Flower Quetzal. In doing so, she is associated with pregnancies and childbirths and was believed to act as a guardian figure for new mothers.

Unlike many other female deities, Xochiquetzal maintains her youthful appearance and is often depicted in opulent attire and gold adornments. Tlaloc was the father of Tecciztecatl , possibly with Chalchiuhtlicue. Tlaloc had an older sister named Huixtocihuatl. There is a sanctuary found atop Mount Tlaloc, dedicated to the god, Tlaloc; it is thought that the location of this sanctuary in relation to other temples surrounding it may have been a way for the Aztecs to mark the time of year and keep track of important ceremonial dates.

Archaeological, ethnohistoric, and ethnographic data indicate that these phenomena coincide with the sowing of maize in dry lands associated with agricultural sites. It also features a structure that housed a statue of Tlaloc in addition to idols of many different religious regions, such as the other sacred mountains.

It rises over two diffierent ecological zones: alpine meadows and subalpine forests. The rainy season starts in May and lasts until October.

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The highest annual temperature occurs in April, the onset of the rainy season, and the lowest in December—January. Some years ago weather conditions were slightly more severe, but the best time to climb the mountain was practically the same as today: October through December, and February until the beginning of May.

The date of the feast of Huey Tozotli celebrated atop Mount Tlaloc coincided with a period of the highest annual temperature, shortly before dangerous thunderstorms might block access to the summit. The first detailed account of Mount Tlaloc by Jim Rickards in was followed by visits or descriptions by other scholars. In Wicke and Horcasitas carried out preliminary archaeological investigations at the site; their conclusions were repeated by Parsons in Archaeo-astronomical research began in , some of which remains unpublished. In excavation was undertaken at the site by Solis and Townsend.

Contemporary artist Jesse Hernandez has interpreted Tlaloc in his "Urban Aztec" style at several points throughout his career, including hand-painted upon a 16" Qee in , as a painting titled Rain God in , and as a factory-produced Dunny with Kidrobot in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the fish genus, see Tlaloc fish. Richard Introduction to Classical Nahuatl revised ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. To him was attributed the rain; for he made it, he caused it to come down, he scattered the rain like seed, and also the hail.

He caused to sprout, to blossom, to leaf out, to bloom, to ripen, the trees, the plants, our food. Garden History. Aztecs: Reign of Blood and Splendor. Time-Life Books. Colonial Latin American Review. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Becoming Petrified: the Making of Archaeological Personhood.

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Mexico City: Sternberg Press. The Art Bulletin. Water History. Thames and Hudson Inc. The Myths of Mexico and Peru. May History of Religions. Aztecs at Mexicolor. Retrieved 20 October Indeed, it appears that the Aztecs paid special homage to the gods or rain and maize in the years One Rabbit and Two Reed. History and Mythology of the Aztecs: the Codex Chimalpopoca. Translated and edited by Fernando Horcasitas and Doris Heyden.

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