Legume Nodulation: A Global Perspective

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What makes Biblio different? Facebook Instagram Twitter. Sign In Register Help Cart. Cart items. Toggle navigation. Stock photo. Search Results Results 1 -5 of 5. Legume Nodulation Janet Sprent. Wiley-Blackwell, Ships with Tracking Number! May not contain Access Codes or Supplements. May be ex-library.

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Buy with confidence, excellent customer service! Bookseller: BookVistas , India Seller rating:. More tools Find sellers with multiple copies Add to want list. Didn't find what you're looking for? Add to want list. Are you a frequent reader or book collector? All these families belong to the orders Cucurbitales , Fagales , and Rosales , which together with the Fabales form a clade of eurosids. In this clade, Fabales were the first lineage to branch off; thus, the ability to fix nitrogen may be plesiomorphic and subsequently lost in most descendants of the original nitrogen-fixing plant; however, it may be that the basic genetic and physiological requirements were present in an incipient state in the last common ancestors of all these plants, but only evolved to full function in some of them:.

Betulaceae : Alnus alders. Cannabaceae : Trema. Coriariaceae : Coriaria. Datiscaceae : Datisca. Two main types of nodule have been described: determinate and indeterminate. Determinate nodules are found on certain tribes of tropical legume such as those of the genera Glycine soybean , Phaseolus common bean , and Vigna. These determinate nodules lose meristematic activity shortly after initiation, thus growth is due to cell expansion resulting in mature nodules which are spherical in shape. Another types of determinate nodule is found in a wide range of herbs, shrubs and trees, such as Arachis peanut.

These are always associated with the axils of lateral or adventitious roots and are formed following infection via cracks where these roots emerge and not using root hairs. Their internal structure is quite different from those of the soybean type of nodule.

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Indeterminate nodules are found in the majority of legumes from all three sub-families, whether in temperate regions or in the tropics. They can be seen in Faboideae legumes such as Pisum pea , Medicago alfalfa , Trifolium clover , and Vicia vetch and all mimosoid legumes such as acacia s, the few nodulated caesalpinioid legumes such as partridge pea.

They earned the name "indeterminate" because they maintain an active apical meristem that produces new cells for growth over the life of the nodule. This results in the nodule having a generally cylindrical shape, which may be extensively branched. Legumes release organic compounds as secondary metabolites called flavonoids from their roots, which attract the rhizobia to them and which also activate nod genes in the bacteria to produce nod factors and intitiate nodule formation.

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The curling begins with the very tip of the root hair curling around the Rhizobium. Within the root tip, a small tube called the infection thread forms, which provides a pathway for the Rhizobium to travel into the root epidermal cells as the root hair continues to curl. Partial curling can even be achieved by nod factor alone. The root hairs curled in the direction of the application, demonstrating the action of a root hair attempting to curl around a bacterium.

Even application on lateral roots caused curling.

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This demonstrated that it is the nod factor itself, not the bacterium that causes the stimulation of the curling. When the nod factor is sensed by the root, a number of biochemical and morphological changes happen: cell division is triggered in the root to create the nodule, and the root hair growth is redirected to curl around the bacteria multiple times until it fully encapsulates one or more bacteria.

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The bacteria encapsulated divide multiple times, forming a microcolony. From this microcolony, the bacteria enter the developing nodule through the infection thread, which grows through the root hair into the basal part of the epidermis cell, and onwards into the root cortex ; they are then surrounded by a plant-derived symbiosome membrane and differentiate into bacteroids that fix nitrogen.

Formation of root nodule

Effective nodulation takes place approximately four weeks after crop planting , with the size, and shape of the nodules dependent on the crop. Crops such as soybeans, or peanuts will have larger nodules than forage legumes such as red clover, or alfalfa, since their nitrogen needs are higher. The number of nodules, and their internal color, will indicate the status of nitrogen fixation in the plant. Nodulation is controlled by a variety of processes, both external heat, acidic soils, drought, nitrate and internal autoregulation of nodulation, ethylene.

Autoregulation of nodulation [19] controls nodule numbers per plant through a systemic process involving the leaf. Leaf tissue senses the early nodulation events in the root through an unknown chemical signal, then restricts further nodule development in newly developing root tissue.

Regulation of legume nodulation by acidic growth conditions

Mutation leading to loss of function in these AON receptor kinases leads to supernodulation or hypernodulation. Often root growth abnormalities accompany the loss of AON receptor kinase activity, suggesting that nodule growth and root development are functionally linked.

Investigations into the mechanisms of nodule formation showed that the ENOD40 gene, coding for a 12—13 amino acid protein [41], is up-regulated during nodule formation [3]. Root nodules apparently have evolved three times within the Fabaceae but are rare outside that family. The propensity of these plants to develop root nodules seems to relate to their root structure.

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  6. In particular, a tendency to develop lateral roots in response to abscisic acid may enable the later evolution of root nodules. Root nodules that occur on non-legume genera like Parasponia in association with Rhizobium bacteria, and those that arise from symbiotic interactions with Actinobacteria Frankia in some plant genera such as Alnus , vary significantly from those formed in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In these symbioses the bacteria are never released from the infection thread. Frankia nodulates approximately two hundred species in the following orders families in parentheses : Cucurbitales Coriariaceae and Datiscaceae , Fagales Betulaceae , Casuarinaceae , and Myricaceae , Rosales Rhamnaceae , Elaeagnaceae and Rosaceae.

    Some fungi produce nodular structures known as tuberculate ectomycorrhizae on the roots of their plant hosts. Suillus tomentosus , for example, produces these structures with its plant host lodgepole pine Pinus contorta var.

    These structures have in turn been shown to host nitrogen fixing bacteria which contribute a significant amount of nitrogen and allow the pines to colonize nutrient-poor sites. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Actinorhizal plant.