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Design, Testing of a Prototype Heavy Gas Ring-Imaging Cherenkov (GRINCH) Detector
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The effect serves as the basis for Cherenkov counters, commonly used detectors of high-energy particles in elementary particle accelerators. For his role in the discovery, Cherenkov shared the Nobel Prize in Physics. These educational opportunities, not ordinarily available to the son of a peasant, enabled Cherenkov to embark on what would become an illustrious career in science. From Peasant Laborer to Scientist. His mother died and his father remarried when Pavel was two years old.
After the Bolshevik Revolution and the civil war that followed, a new Soviet secondary school opened in the village in , which allowed Cherenkov to resume his education while continuing to earn a living through occasional work at a grocery store. In their attempts to democratize access to higher education, the Bolsheviks were not satisfied with simply removing formal barriers of gender, ethnicity, and religion.
They also tried to compensate for economic disadvantages by preferential treatment of students from worker and peasant backgrounds.
Dispersive 2D Cherenkov radiation on a dielectric nano-film
It became possible, in principle, to enroll in a university without a formal high school diploma, start a graduate program without fully completing undergraduate education, and be hired as a professor without a PhD degree or equivalent. Many Soviet scientists of the Cherenkov generation skipped one or another of these formal steps while embarking on their academic careers.
Cherenkov took advantage of promotional opportunities available for lower-class students and in , apparently without completing secondary education, enrolled in the Pedagogical Department of Voronezh State University. Graduation in enabled Cherenkov to become a teacher of physics and mathematics at an evening school for workers in Kozlov now Michurinsk , a small town in Tambov province.
But was also the year when a new, more radical cultural revolution broke out in the Soviet Union , and attempts intensified to draw more women, minorities, and lower-class students not only into colleges but also into the ranks of scientific researchers and to rapidly train a new and massive generation of scientists for the ongoing crash industrialization effort.
Soviet educational policies at the time did not recognize academic degrees such as the PhD. The job of a graduate student, or aspirant , was not to write a thesis but instead to learn the trade of scientific research while working as a junior apprentice alongside established scientists. Earlier that year Cherenkov married Marya Putintseva, daughter of a professor of Russian literature from Voronezh. Other events, typical of the revolutionary era, also affected his life. In theory, associations with persecuted relatives could have undermined some of the advantages Cherenkov received due to his low class origin, but there is no evidence that he was affected in this way, at least not significantly.
Cherenkov Radiation. Living the life of a young up-and-coming physicist in the revolutionary Soviet society meant also to be particularly receptive to the on-going radical revolution in fundamental laws of physics. The year brought yet another radical crack in the established foundation of physics: the Compton Effect—electrons kicked out of their atoms by incoming x-rays—confirmed an even more daring prediction by Einstein that electromagnetic radiation behaves like an assembly of particle-like light quanta.
In quantum mechanics revealed the new strange laws of microscopic particles at the atomic levels that contradicted not only the classical Newtonian mechanics but also seemingly the laws of reason and causality.
Although the news about the most recent breakthroughs often came to them with a certain delay, the young Soviet physicists jumped at every opportunity to contribute to the great developments in physics, often ahead of their more senior peers. Upon receiving the first news about quantum mechanics, theorists Yakov Frenkel, Vladimir Fock, Igor Tamm, and Lev Landau immediately joined the new revolutionary theory and made important contributions to it. In Georgiy George Gamow pioneered the application of quantum mechanics to atomic nucleus with his theory of alpha-decay.
Despite its elite affiliation, the Physico-Mathematical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, where Cherenkov began his aspirant studies, had been a very small and almost nominal institution. The main events in Soviet physics occurred elsewhere, in much larger and better funded universities and research institutes associated with industry. A physics professor from Moscow State University and a newly elected member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Vavilov was an expert in experimental research on luminescence—a kind of quantum interaction between light and matter typically observed as a property of some substances to glow long after being exposed to light or some other excitation the phenomenon is used in luminescent screens.
As director, he harbored broader ambitions and wanted to develop in his institute the most exciting and cutting-edge fields, in particular the study of the atomic nucleus. His appointment at the Physico-Mathematical Institute was connected with the plans by the academy to greatly expand and separate the institute into two independent ones, for physics and mathematics respectively. In a bold administrative move, and also in the spirit of revolutionary times, Vavilov entrusted several aspirants to start nuclear research on their own, while appointing himself the pro forma head of the nuclear laboratory to ensure administrative protection.
He was asked to study what happens to luminescent solutions of uranium salts excited not by ordinary light, as in the common method, but by much more energetic gamma rays from a radioactive source. Cherenkov mastered this technique and applied it in his study of luminescence induced by gamma rays in uranium salt solutions. An extremely diligent and meticulous observer, he noticed that gamma rays also produced a faint background blue glow in ordinarily nonluminiscent pure solvents, such as sulfuric acid or water. Cherenkov, who also moved to Moscow, continued his studies of the new effect despite the strong skepticism he encountered.
His English-language article reporting the chief results of the investigation was rejected by Nature in but published later that year by the Physical Review. Soviet educational policies started returning to more traditional forms around that time, with diminishing attention to class criteria and a renewed emphasis on regularity and quality of training. In particular, from on, graduate students were once again required to defend a thesis for the kandidat nauk , the Russian equivalent of the PhD degree.
After receiving his degree in Cherenkov remained at FIAN as a research associate and in defended his second thesis for a higher academic degree, the doktor nauk. In the course of these studies he discovered further characteristics of the new radiation, including its specific anisotropy—the radiation propagated at a very particular angle relative to the direction of the incident gamma ray. Cherenkov or Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation is produced when Compton electrons, kicked by high-energy gamma quanta, move through a substance relatively uniformly rather than decelerating rapidly, as Vavilov had thought and faster than light would travel in the substance.
As was realized post-factum, the phenomenon is rather general and must have been seen by many physicists, starting with Pierre and Marie Curie , who had worked with gamma radiation prior to Cherenkov but either did not attribute special importance to the glow or, like Lucien Mallet — in , considered it luminescence.
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Also, as early as Arnold Sommerfeld — had calculated waves emitted by an electron traveling faster than the speed of light, according to the turn-of-the-century electron theory, and arrived at the formulas almost identical to those derived by Tamm and Frank. So although Cherenkov radiation seemed to contradict relativity theory, it was in fact fully compatible with it. Cherenkov radiation can be produced by any electrically charged particles, not just electrons, if they propagate through a medium with sufficient velocity.
It is often seen, for example, in photos of nuclear reactors as bright blue light emanating from water. The effect proved especially useful for registering high-energy elementary particles encountered in cosmic rays or produced in particle accelerators. Detectors using this principle, Cherenkov counters, were designed and became widely used soon after World War II , and they helped physicists find new elementary particles, such as the antiproton discovered in Cherenkov also pointed out that the radiation could be used to measure the velocities of particles, an idea later realized in the so-called RICH detectors.
Vavilov had died in and thus could not be nominated for the Nobel Prize. In the Soviet Union the discovery of the new radiation was recognized by a Stalin Prize awarded.